Nanotechnology manipulates and creates matter to formulate nanometer scale materials and objects. It is an interdisciplinary field that involves a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines, and has societal implications. The past few decades have produced nanotechnology innovations and applications for agriculture, healthcare and medicine, biotechnology, energy and environment, materials science, electronics, information technology, telecommunication and manufacturing. Governments and private investors, including venture capitalists, have made considerable investments in emerging nanotechnologies. Both large organizations and new startup companies are exploring options to commercialize nanotechnology-based products. This review examines the commercialization of nanotechnology by considering the strategies of large corporations and start-up firms, and the major challenges facing the adoption and diffusion of nanotechnology.
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