Perspectives and Potential Applications of Ruthenium-Based Nanocarriers for Cancer Therapy

Cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease characterized by continuous uncontrolled growth and expansion of abnormal cells. In general, in tumor cells the signaling pathways regulating cellular processes, as cell growth and division and cell-tocell communication result strongly altered. Furthermore, the cancer cells accumulate repeated mutations that provide a selective growth advantage over other cells. In addition, some cancer cells become invasive and then metastasize. This characteristic together with the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of the tumor cells makes cancer disease particularly difficult to treat and eradicate.

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