Cholesterol Homeostasis Imbalance and Brain Functioning: Neurological Disorders and Behavioral Consequences

Cholesterol is an amphipathic sterol compound that exerts both structural and physiological tasks in the plasma membrane of all eukaryoticcells. The planar and rigid structure of this molecule regulates the fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer and its permeability to solutes and ions. The structural role of cholesterol is particularly relevant in the central nervous system, where it represents one of the major components of myelin sheaths, and an important constituent of the synaptic vesicle membranes. The synthesis and trafficking of cholesterol is highly specialized in the brain, and displays several differences if compared to its metabolism in other tissues. In humans, disruption to cholesterol homeostasis can lead to a wide spectrum of pathological conditions. The relevance of this compound in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases is nowadays well established, whilecorrelations existing betweencholesterol and brain disorders are still poorly characterized.

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Pulmonic Valve Endocarditis Complicating Streptococcus pneumoniae Community- Acquired Pneumonia

Infective endocarditis is most often seen affecting the left side of the heart, with the pulmonary valve being the least frequently involvedvalve. The most common organisms responsible for infective endocarditis are Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus viridans. Here we report a rare case of pulmonary valve endocarditis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a rare pathogen for this setting. The clinical features, presentation, and review of the literature are discussed.

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Therapeutic Hypothermia Still Effective in Prevention of Anoxic Encephalopathy following Extended Period of Pulselessness during Cardiac Arrest

There are approximately 300,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests per year with less than 10% of those surviving. More than half ofsurvivors suffer permanent neurologic deficits. Therapeutic hypothermia has proven effective at thwarting neurologic damage occurringin the 16-hour window following return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Despite recommendations by the American HeartAssociation (AHA), many cardiologists have been slow to implement therapeutic hypothermia. While many trials have discussed therelevance of initial rhythm and delay of cooling, there has been limited discussion of the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia in the presence of extended pulselessness.

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View Journal Clinical and Experimental Research in Cardiology (JCERC)

Molecular Mechanisms of Mismatch Repair Genes in Cancer – A Brief Review

The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is necessary for the maintenance of genomic stability. The MMR system promotes genomic fidelity by repairing base-base mismatches, insertion-deletion loops (IDLs) and heterologies generated during DNA replication and recombination.Failure to accomplish these functions may lead to cancer and are associated with tumor prone phenotypes. MMR proteinscoordinate a complex network of physical and functional interactions and are also involved in activation of cell-cycle check point andinduction of apoptosis during DNA damage. They also play a role in cell death by alkylating agents and other chemotherapeutic drugs.

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View Journal of Proteomics and Genomics (JPG)

Gastric Type Adenocarcinoma with Fundic Gland Differentiation in the Duodenum Resected by ESD (Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection)

Gastric type adenocarcinoma with fundic gland differentiation (GA-FG) has been reported as a new, rare, chief celldifferentiation composed carcinoma. Clinicopathologically, it exists on the gastric cardia/fundus, with low proliferative activity andlow-grade malignancy. Until now, there has been no report of this GA-FG type cancer in the duodenum.

Effects of Transfer Point Glucan #300 Supplementation on Children exposed to Passive Smoking - Placebo-driven Double-blind Clinical Trials

In this study, we focused on the effect of β-glucan supplementation of children with chronic respiratory problems. We measured thelevels of cortisol, salivary IgE and cotinine in 56 children and evaluated the effect of 30 day supplementation with 100 mg/day oraldose of yeast-derived β-glucan. Our results showed strong decrease of cotinine and cortisol levels in saliva of β-glucan-supplementedchildren. The increase of total salivary IgE levels in both groups was not statistically significant. The positive effects of complex curative
treatment using β-glucan were accompanied by increased physical endurance and by significant reduction of negative clinical problems of affected children.

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View Journal of Nutrition and Health (JNH)

Association between Stress and Dietary Behaviours among Undergraduate Students in Kuwait: Gender Differences

Studies have shown that a significant proportion of university students globally suffer from stress. Although many studieshave reported an association between psychological stress and dietary behaviour, findings remain inconclusive. To date, no research in Kuwait has assessed the prevalence of stress and its relationship with dietary pattern among university students.

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Does Physical Activity and Sport Practice Lead to a Healthier Lifestyle and Eating Habits in Male Adolescents?

The prevalence of childhood obesity has been increasing rapidly and there is general consensus that good nutritionalpractices and physical activity should be encouraged as early as possible in life. The aim of this study was to describe and to compare the current lifestyle and dietary pattern of normal weight (NW) and overweight + obese (OW+OB) male adolescents who are physically active.

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Parenteral Nutrition Utilization in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients

Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients often require parenteral nutrition (PN) to meet their nutrient needs. While general guidelinesfor the provision of PN support by nutrition support teams (NSTs) have been shown to decrease inappropriate PN use, recommendationsfor nutrition in BMT recipients are lacking. We reviewed the charts of patients status post BMT on PN to determinewhether institutional guidelines for PN initiation and continuous supervision of NSTs could be applied in this population. With theInstitutional Review Board (IRB) approval, charts of adult BMT recipients on PN between June 14, 2006 and June 30, 2007 were examined.Sixty-nine charts were reviewed. Indications for initiation of PN included severe mucositis, graft versus host disease (GVHD), and other transplant related side effects resulting in poor oral intake.

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Overweight, Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in Primary School Children in Pavia, Northern Italy

Childhood obesity has been described as the main health-related problem in developed countries, due to its link with physical, social and psychological consequences with an increased risk for developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.All the pupils of both sexes attending the second year of all the primary schools in Pavia, Northern Italy, were recruited (n=470) for this study. Measurements of weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were taken under standard conditions. Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist-to-height-ratio (W/HtR) were computed and sex specific percentile values for BMI, WC and W/HtR were calculated and compared with the same percentiles available for different countries.

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Clinical Characteristics of Metastatic Gastric Tumors: A Report of 8 Cases in a Single Hospital

Metastatic gastric tumors (MGTs) mean the tumor cells that attack the stomach and grow there through blood vessel, lymph vessel, and other pathway, consistent with the primary tumor in phenotype, which are clinically uncommon, and information on MGTs is generallylimited to single case reports. Here we present a clinical series of 8 cases with MGTs, in attention to discuss the clinical characteristics,diagnosis and treatment, and prognosis of MGTs. Our data showed that MGTs are rare, with a male predominance, and the cause ofdeath was multiple organ metastases in most cases. Heterochromous MGTs showed a significantly better prognosis than simultaneousMGTs, and a long interval between initial radical excision of the primary tumor and appearance of gastric metastasis was found to beassociated with good prognosis.

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Juvenile Ossifying Fibroma - WHO Type

Juvenile ossifying fibroma is an uncommon clinical entity, its aggressive local behaviour and high recurrence rate mean that it is important to make an early diagnosis, apply the appropriate treatment and, especially, follow the patient up over the long term. In the current article we report a case of juvenile ossifying fibroma-WHO type in 12yr old patient which was clinical and histopathologically challenging as it was asymptomatic and at an unusual location.

Prostate Cancer – Double Vision but Solitary Lesion

A 53 year old man with a background of castrate-sensitive prostate cancer on intermittent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) presented with right sixth nerve palsy secondary to a solitary right petroclival lesion involving adjacent dura and bone. The clinical and imaging characteristics of the lesion were consistent with a number of differential diagnoses (including metastatic prostate cancer, meningioma and chondrosarcoma). The patient initially declined biopsy and ADT was recommenced but the lesion continued to enlarge despite an excellent biochemical response. A subsequent biopsy of the petroclival mass demonstrated a WHO grade I meningioma and the patient proceeded to have definitive stereotactic radiotherapy. 

Ascending Aortic B-Cell Lymphoma Masquerading as Intramural Hematoma: A Case Report

We report the case of a 74 year old female who presented with imaging concerning for an intramural hematoma of the ascending aorta. Despite multiple imaging modalities consistent with intramural hematoma, operative findings confirmed a peri-aortic lymphoma or what was once lymphoma.

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Olfactory Neuroblastoma (Esthesioneuroblastoma) following Retro-Orbital Irradiation for Graves’ Ophthalmopathy

Malignancies of the nasal cavity are uncommon and comprise less than 1% of all malignancies. While almost half of the sinonasal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, olfactory neuroblastoma, also known as esthesioneuroblastoma, comprise less than 6% of nasal malignancies. After the initial description in 1924 by Berger and Luc, less than 1,000 cases were reported until 1997. These are tumours of neuroectodermal origin which are thought to arise from the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. The mean age at presentation is 53 years, with most cases occurring in patients between 40 and 70 years of age. Although there is a male predominance, no other risk factor is commonly associated with this disease. 

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Hepatic Angiosarcoma, going but not gone. Lessons from a single centre experience

Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare tumour that is often difficult to diagnose. Historically, most cases of hepatic angiosarcoma were seen in the setting of industrial epidemics caused by exposure of workers to toxins such as vinyl chloride. Cases associated with recognised exposure to carcinogens have fortunately been extremely rare for the last three or more decades. However, the tumour has by no means disappeared in the Australian community. In this case series, we describe three cases of hepatic angiosarcoma that were seen at our institution since 2002. The first case presented with cholestatic liver function tests and was found to have angiosarcoma on liver biopsy. In the second case, the patient was admitted for decompensated liver disease on a background of presumed hepatitis B cirrhosis. The diagnosis of hepatic angiosarcoma was made only at autopsy after the patient died from multi-organ failure.

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Thrombotic Microangiopathy Associated with Intravenous Injection Of Opana Er®: University Medical Center Case Series.

In response to the rapidly rising intravenous opioid abuse epidemic, the United States Food and Drug Administration is currently promoting the development of prescription opioid tablets that are specifically formulated to deter abuse. Opana ER®; (Endo Pharmaceuticals) recently underwent reformulation to include a crush-resistant coating. Only recently described, illicit intravenous injection of reformulated Opana ER®; is associated with a distinctive clinical syndrome of thrombotic microangiopathy. Ten patients with the appropriate history and presenting symptoms were identified within an 8 month interval (July 2012 through February 2013) at the University of Tennessee Medical Center (UTMC) Knoxville with ICD-9 code of 446.6 (thrombotic microangiopathy) by electronic search. Review of laboratory data, electronic medical records, blood product usage, and total hospital admission charges were compiled for these individual patients.

Resolution of Complete Atrioventricular Block in a Patient with Severe Hypothyroidism

Causes for syncope are multifaceted. Hormonal etiology, specifically hypothyroidism, is associated with cardiac arrhythmias [1]. Sinus bradycardia, low voltage, nonspecific T-wave changes and dissociative atrioventricular (AV) abnormalities are some of descriptive electrocardiographic features [2]. In the majority of well know clinical presentations complete AV block requires the insertion of a permanent pacemaker. However hypothyroidism related bradycardia and consequential symptomatic AV blocks could be reversible with timely and proper management.

Tame to Torture: Psychosexual Correlations of Sex, Violence and Torture

This paper discusses the psychosexual correlations and psychological consequences related to torture and behavioral acts that are fundamentally torturous. The influence of participation by learning and the relationship of acts to thought and thought to acts are further discussed to raise awareness to the effects of torture on the torturer. Theories from multiple disciplines are presented in an integrated context to examine the correlation between fundamental psychological principles associated with acts that are torturous in nature and, therefore, innately evil.

Programming Scripts for Simple and Complex Paternity Testing based on Open-Source Programming Language from the R Project

rogramming scripts were written for the statistical analysis of genetic data from simple cases and complex cases of undetermined paternity. The methods presented here involve algorithms constructed with R, an open-source and increasingly popular programming language used for calculations and statistics; these methods also involve conditional probability analysis, Bayes’ Theorem, and pedigree analysis. Previous computer programs for assessing probable paternity in complex cases of undetermined paternity have been written; however, only minimal or generalized formulas are described in the papers presenting these programs. Therefore, these previously published programs are difficult to understand for most forensic researchers.

Stature Estimation from the Anthropometric Measurements of Footprint in Iban Ethnics of East Malaysia by Regression Analysis

A person's stature is an identifying characteristic that is often used in forensic investigation. Footprint is the one of the valuable physical evidence encountered in the crime scenes and examination of barefoot impressions is important especially in developing countries like India, Malaysia where majority of the rural population like to walk barefooted because of socio-economic and climatic reasons. Foot impressions are still found at crime scenes, since offenders often tend to remove their footwear either to avoid noise or to gain better grip in climbing walls, etc., while entering or exiting. Most of the foot/foot print studies were conducted on mixed population. 

The Flesh Fly Sarcophaga (Liopygia) crassipalpis Macquart 1839 as an Invader of a Corpse in Calabria (Southern Italy)

We present an indoor forensic case that occurred in spring 2013 in Cosenza (southern Italy). The entomological evidence collected at the scene consisted of Calliphoridae (Calliphora vicina, Lucilia sericata), Sarcophagidae (Sarcophaga crassipalpis), Fanniidae (Fannia scalaris) and Muscidae (Hydrotaea ignava). The minimum Post Mortem Interval (mPMI) was calculated by relating the entomological evidence to data available for Diptera species in the area and to our knowledge of the development of flies used as forensic indicators in Calabria. We report S. crassipalpis as a corpse invader for the first time in Italy.

NMR Assignment of N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide Seized as Herbal Incense for the First Time in Italy

The synthetic cannabinoid, N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide, known also as AKB48 and/or APINACA, has been detected for the first time in herbal incense seized in Italy. Its structural characterization has been performed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. In order to favor an easier and faster identification of AKB48 in future investigations, NMR assignments in deuterated methanol and chloroform is also reported.

The Perception of a Woman’s Love in a Relationship with a Prisoner is Erotic and Altruistic

Studies have reported the effects of imprisonment on the wives and girlfriends of prisoners, but have not investigated how these women perceive love and commitment. This study analyzes four different styles of love: eros (romantic love), storge (amicably love), mania (possessive love), and agape (altruistic love) in a sample of 96 women who are in relationships with prisoners. The same love styles were compared to a control sample of N=96 women. They were selected from a larger sample of 859 women such that the variables age and duration of the relationship of the two groups were matched. Results show that women in relationships with prisoners score higher on the eros and agape love styles in comparison to the women from the control group.

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