Nutritional Aspects in Heart Failure

Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome, of a progressive character, that has a limited prognostic factor and manifested by various extracardiac aspects. It represents a serious and growing public health problem worldwide, both for its high prevalence and the severity of its clinical manifestations, being the final common pathway of most diseases. Undernutrition is often associated with HF, especially in the later stages of the disease, and may chronically reach cardiac cachexia, a severe manifestation related to poor clinical prognosis. Nutritional care is accepted as an integral and indispensable part of the treatment of HF and seeks to improve the nutritional status of the patient, aiming to replenish energy reserves, increasing skeletal muscle tissue and improving exercise capacity. Micronutrient deficiency is common in patients with HF and its origin seems to be multifactorial, among which prolonged use of diuretics, low dietary intake and increased nutrient losses are related. In this review the nutritional aspects will be addressed for HF, with emphasis on the implications and nutritional recommendations.
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